Normally, when we work with Numbers, we use primitive data types such as int, short, long, float and double, etc. The number data types, their possible values and number ranges have been explained while discussing C++ Data Types.

## Defining Numbers in C++

You have already defined numbers in various examples given in previous chapters. Here is another consolidated example to define various types of numbers in C++ −

#include <iostream> using namespace std; int main () { // number definition: short s; int i; long l; float f; double d; // number assignments; s = 10; i = 1000; l = 1000000; f = 230.47; d = 30949.374; // number printing; cout << "short s :" << s << endl; cout << "int i :" << i << endl; cout << "long l :" << l << endl; cout << "float f :" << f << endl; cout << "double d :" << d << endl; return 0; }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

short s :10 int i :1000 long l :1000000 float f :230.47 double d :30949.4

## Math Operations in C++

In addition to the various functions you can create, C++ also includes some useful functions you can use. These functions are available in standard C and C++ libraries and called **built-in** functions. These are functions that can be included in your program and then use.

C++ has a rich set of mathematical operations, which can be performed on various numbers. Following table lists down some useful built-in mathematical functions available in C++.

To utilize these functions you need to include the math header file **<cmath>**.

Sr.No | Function & Purpose |
---|---|

1 |
This function takes an angle (as a double) and returns the cosine. |

2 |
This function takes an angle (as a double) and returns the sine. |

3 |
This function takes an angle (as a double) and returns the tangent. |

4 |
This function takes a number and returns the natural log of that number. |

5 |
The first is a number you wish to raise and the second is the power you wish to raise it t |

6 |
If you pass this function the length of two sides of a right triangle, it will return you the length of the hypotenuse. |

7 |
You pass this function a number and it gives you the square root. |

8 |
This function returns the absolute value of an integer that is passed to it. |

9 |
This function returns the absolute value of any decimal number passed to it. |

10 |
Finds the integer which is less than or equal to the argument passed to it. |

Following is a simple example to show few of the mathematical operations −

#include <iostream> #include <cmath> using namespace std; int main () { // number definition: short s = 10; int i = -1000; long l = 100000; float f = 230.47; double d = 200.374; // mathematical operations; cout << "sin(d) :" << sin(d) << endl; cout << "abs(i) :" << abs(i) << endl; cout << "floor(d) :" << floor(d) << endl; cout << "sqrt(f) :" << sqrt(f) << endl; cout << "pow( d, 2) :" << pow(d, 2) << endl; return 0; }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

sign(d) :-0.634939 abs(i) :1000 floor(d) :200 sqrt(f) :15.1812 pow( d, 2 ) :40149.7

## Random Numbers in C++

There are many cases where you will wish to generate a random number. There are actually two functions you will need to know about random number generation. The first is **rand()**, this function will only return a pseudo random number. The way to fix this is to first call the **srand()** function.

Following is a simple example to generate few random numbers. This example makes use of **time()** function to get the number of seconds on your system time, to randomly seed the rand() function −

#include <iostream> #include <ctime> #include <cstdlib> using namespace std; int main () { int i,j; // set the seed srand( (unsigned)time( NULL ) ); /* generate 10 random numbers. */ for( i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) { // generate actual random number j = rand(); cout <<" Random Number : " << j << endl; } return 0; }

When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −

Random Number : 1748144778 Random Number : 630873888 Random Number : 2134540646 Random Number : 219404170 Random Number : 902129458 Random Number : 920445370 Random Number : 1319072661 Random Number : 257938873 Random Number : 1256201101 Random Number : 580322989

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